Iran's nuclear facilities

Under the terms of the deal, Iran will not conduct research and development associated with uranium enrichment in Fordow, and will not have any fissile material at the site for 15 years. Iran will only enrich uranium at the Natanz facility.
On Jan. 11, 2016, Iran removed the core of its Arak heavy water nuclear reactor and filled it with cement.


Enrichment capacity

Under the terms of the deal, Iran has agreed to reduce by approximately two-thirds its installed centrifuges. Iran will go from having about 19,000 installed today to 6,104 installed under the deal, with only 5,060 of these enriching uranium for 10 years. All 6,104 centrifuges will be IR-1s, Iran’s first-generation centrifuge.

*Uranium hexafluoride, or UF6, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.


How centrifuges work

Natural uranium consists of less than 1% of the U-235 isotope needed for fission chain reaction. For a nuclear power plant, uranium must be enriched in a centrifuge to relatively low levels of purity. Further enriched, it can be used in a nuclear weapon.


Crude oil production

Under the Joint Plan of Action (JPOA) reached in November 2013, both the U.S. and EU relaxed some measures on Iran, which allowed the Islamic Republic to have access to some of its frozen oil revenues abroad and also allowed a modest easing of oil sales to top importers including China and India.

A complex range of restrictions have been imposed on Iran over several decades, starting with initial measures in 1979 after Iranian students stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran.


Ballistic missile program

Tehran's demand for an end to the U.N. Security Council arms embargo and ballistic missile sanctions was among the most contentious unresolved points in the nuclear deal talks with the six powers.

U.N. restrictions on the development of Iran's missile program, which dates back to 2006, aims to prevent Iran from developing "nuclear weapon delivery systems," which diplomats say covers any missile capable of delivering an atomic warhead.

Iran’s ballistic missile arsenal, mostly acquired from foreign sources like North Korea, is still dependent on foreign suppliers for key ingredients, components, and equipment.

The Islamic Republic is the only country to develop a 2,000-km missile without first having a nuclear weapons capability.



Sources: International Atomic Energy Agency; Nuclear Security Science & Policy Institute; IEER; Institute for Energy and Environmental Research; Energy Information Administration; United States Institute for Peace; Nuclear Threat Initiative. Missile Threat, George C. Marshall and Claremont Institute.



Additional reporting by: Helen Coster. *Select list from Iran’s missile arsenal.