Ageing and falling
As the post-World War II baby boom generation retires, the demographic dividend which has been positive for the last 40 years will turn negative for at least as long, according to projections by Eurostat.
Germany's 82 million residents will dwindle to 74.7 million by 2050, while Britain will have overtaken the Germans by then as the EU's most populous nation, if it stays in the bloc.
Median age over time
Fewer working-age people to more seniors
At present, the age dependence rate is 27.5 on average in the 28-nation EU, but Germany and Italy are well above that level. Projections indicate there will be only two people of working age for every retiree by 2050.
Old-age dependency ratio projections - selected European countries vs. EU average
The bigger the ratio, the fewer working people to every retiree EU average
Migration flows within the EU in 2012
2012 is latest OECD data available. Figures are from national sources, which include short-term movements. Number of migrants into Denmark, Estonia, France and Greece not available.